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Read and learn for free about the following article: Observational studies and experiments Worked example identifying observational study. Observational studies and experiments. This is the currently selected item. (experimental vs. observational) Types of statistical studies. Mar 11,  · Experimental Alzheimer's Drug Shows Promise. MONDAY, March 11 (HealthDay News) -- A small Finnish study is raising hopes for a new drug designed to help stave off memory loss among patients Author: Healthday. An experimental study of a Mediterranean diet intervention for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. L Skoldstam, L Hagfors, and G Johansson This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Shapiro JA, Koepsell TD, Voigt LF, Dugowson CE, Kestin M, Nelson JL. Diet and rheumatoid arthritis in women: a possible protective Cited by:

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By creating a sense of familiarity with tobacco, cigarette advertising and bold packaging displays in stores where children often visit may help to pre-dispose them to smoking.

A total of ninth-grade students were randomly allocated to view a photograph of a typical convenience store point-of-sale which had been digitally manipulated to show either cigarette advertising and pack displays, pack displays only or no cigarettes. Students then completed a self-administered questionnaire. Compared with those who viewed the no cigarettes, students either in the display only condition or cigarette advertising condition perceived it would be easier to purchase tobacco from these stores, experimental study article.

Those who saw the cigarette advertising perceived it would be less likely they would be asked for proof of age, and tended to think a greater number of stores would sell cigarettes to them, compared with respondents who saw no tobacco products. Respondents in the display only condition tended to recall displayed cigarette brands more often than respondents who saw no cigarettes.

Cigarette advertising similarly influenced students, and tended to weaken students' resolve not to smoke in future. Retail tobacco advertising as well as cigarette pack displays may have adverse influences on youth, experimental study article, suggesting that tighter tobacco marketing restrictions are needed.

As usual avenues for tobacco advertising have become increasingly unavailable, the visual presence of the cigarette pack and the in-store pack display has become an essential means of communicating brand imagery for tobacco companies [ 1, 2 ].

It has been demonstrated that widespread in-store tobacco advertising can influence and distort adolescents' perceptions regarding popularity, use and availability of tobacco. Experimental research has shown that adolescents exposed to retail tobacco advertising perceived significantly easier access to cigarettes than a control group [ 4 ]. Advertising exposure also influenced perceptions about smoking prevalence, peer approval for smoking and support for tobacco control policies [ 4 ]. Another study [ 5 ] found that schoolchildren exposed to point-of-sale advertisements were more likely than those exposed to a photograph of a pack of cigarettes to report positive attributes of users of the brand of cigarettes.

Further research has shown that adolescents who reported at least weekly exposure to retail tobacco marketing were more likely to have experimented with smoking [ 6 ] and that in-store branded tobacco advertising and promotion are strongly associated with choice of cigarette brands by adolescents [ 7 ].

The presence of tobacco in stores alongside everyday items such as confectionery, soft drinks and magazines helps to create a sense of familiarity with tobacco products.

This familiarity may act to de-emphasize the serious health experimental study article of tobacco consumption and increase youth perceptions of the prevalence of smoking, as well as their perceived access to tobacco products [ 8 ]. The presence of tobacco products in neighbourhood retail outlets conveys to young people that tobacco use is desirable, experimental study article, socially acceptable experimental study article prevalent in society [ 9 ], experimental study article.

In Victoria, Australia, point-of-sale tobacco advertising has been banned since Januaryand cigarette pack displays are limited to one pack face per brand variant. An observational study conducted following the implementation of this law found that, although compliance was evident, displays emerged that tilted packs towards the floor, providing maximum viewing of the top of all the packs queued in the display and a consequently greater visual and colourful presence for each brand variant [ 10 ].

The present study aims to examine the effect of cigarette packaging displays and advertising at the point-of-sale on students' smoking-related perceptions, beliefs and intentions. Given previous research, we hypothesized that exposure to retail tobacco advertising and cigarette pack displays at the point-of-sale would influence students' perceptions about ease of access to cigarettes, normative beliefs about smoking, perceived harms of smoking, perceived popularity of cigarette brands experimental study article future intentions to smoke.

Data collection took place in late and early from a convenience sample of ninth-grade students aged 14—15 years from five secondary schools in Victoria, Australia: two Catholic boys schools, a private co-educational school, a public co-educational school and a Catholic girls' school.

Three of the schools were located in areas that had above average level of socio-economic advantage for Victoria, while the other two schools were in areas that had below average level of socio-economic advantage [ 11 ]. Schools were approached by a research assistant to experimental study article willingness to have their students involved in the study.

Schools were informed that the study would be an investigation into product advertising in convenience stores, experimental study article. Specific detail about examining tobacco marketing was not disclosed, to avoid risk of priming student's responses. Information was sent home to students' parents, along with a consent form, to obtain parental permission to be involved in the study.

The between-subjects experimental study design was adapted from that developed by Henriksen et al, experimental study article.

Within each classroom, participants were randomly exposed to one of the three point-of-sale conditions under the guise of pre-testing a news story written for teenagers. A convenience store's point-of-sale area experimental study article a cigarette pack display, but no cigarette advertising as required by the current law in Victoria. Experimental study article colour photograph of a point-of-sale section of a convenience store was digitally altered to create the three versions of the same retail environment.

Adobe Photoshop was used to eliminate cigarette advertising and cigarette pack displays and to replace these with other non-tobacco product advertising or displays.

No retailers or customers were visible in the photographs and references to store names were removed. Trained research assistants visited schools to administer the study. Before the experimental manipulation, experimental study article, all students took part in a discussion designed to increase experimental study article salience of general brand advertising and display. Following the discussion of brand advertising, students within classrooms were randomly assigned to see photographs of one of the three conditions.

A research assistant then read aloud a fictional news story about teen eating habits and visits to convenience stores. Students were told to look carefully at the photograph they were given of the point-of-sale, and asked to imagine walking around the shop noticing what to buy, while they listened to the story. After the news story had been read out, the research assistant collected all point-of-sale photographs to ensure students did not subsequently refer back to them.

Students then completed a brief questionnaire. Finally, experimental study article were asked to estimate how many stores in their neighbourhood would sell tobacco to them, and to other students their age.

Perceived prevalence of smoking was assessed by asking how many out of classmates in their year level, high school students and adults they thought smoked cigarettes at least once a week. We asked students to nominate the brand they would be likely to smoke if they were a smoker, and then nominate what they thought were the most popular brands smoked by students their age and adults, experimental study article.

These brands were determined by their visual presentation in the display, based on the criteria of being presented by a block of colour or a block with a distinctive feature of the pack e. Students indicated their sex, whether they had any older brothers or sisters, or a parent or guardian who smoked and how many, if any, of their five best friends smoked.

Following the method of Pierce et al. This was a continuous variable, experimental study article, where a lower value indicated less exposure to cigarettes from family and friends. Chi-square analysis was used to determine whether random assignment produced equivalent groups in relation to tobacco use and other characteristics.

To test hypotheses, generalized estimating equations GEEs with random effects were used to determine the effects of exposure to the three point-of-sale conditions, controlling for sex, smoking susceptibility and social and familial exposure to smoking. The school attended by respondents was treated as a random effect to account for clustering by school. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between the cigarette brands respondents thought were most popular among students and adults, and those cigarette brands that were advertised or displayed in the pictured stores.

Table I shows that the characteristics of students were equally distributed by condition in relation to demographic characteristics and peer and family exposure to smoking. There was no significant difference between the latter two conditions. Students experimental study article tended to disagree with statements attributing positive characteristics to teenagers who smoked, with no significant differences between experimental conditions Table III, experimental study article.

Tobacco brands that were prominently visible in the displays of the cigarette display and cigarette advertising conditions i. There were no experimental study article differences between conditions in relation to the brands respondents thought were popular among students their age who smoke, experimental study article.

This experimental study aimed to assess whether cigarette pack displays in retail stores influenced students' perceptions about smoking in ways similar to those previously found for retail tobacco advertising [ 4 ]. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of cigarettes at the point-of-sale—whether cigarette display only or display plus tobacco advertising—increased students' perceptions about the ease of purchasing cigarettes.

In addition, experimental study article, the presence of tobacco advertising decreased students' perceived likelihood of being asked for proof of age and tended to increase perceptions of the number of stores that would sell them cigarettes, experimental study article.

This pattern of findings suggests the presence of displays in retail stores serve to create the perception among students that cigarettes are easily available and accessible in their community, while the presence of tobacco advertising further strengthens perceived ease of accessibility of cigarettes, experimental study article.

Our study findings also suggest that, like advertising, the cigarette pack display is an effective vehicle for promoting brand recall, as evidenced by the cigarette brands reported by students to be the most popular among adult smokers.

High recall of cigarette brand names experimental study article were advertised in the pictured store, as well as cigarette brands that were prominent in the displays, suggests that tobacco companies are effectively using cigarette packaging displays as a communication device for experimental study article and reinforcing brand awareness and recognition [ 7 ].

Cigarette brand names that were advertised in the pictured store also tended to affect the brands of cigarettes students reported they might try if they did smoke. Exposure to point-of-sale advertising, but not displays, tended to weaken student's resolve not to smoke in the following year.

Findings also indicate that exposure to advertising, as opposed to a pack display on its own, influenced whether students would accept a cigarette from one of their friends if they offered. In countries such as the United States in which point-of-sale tobacco advertising has continued to proliferate, this is great cause for concern.

No effects were observed for most variables measuring perceived harm from smoking, except the perceived danger of smoking one or two cigarettes per day, which was significantly higher among those in the cigarette advertising condition than those in the cigarette display condition.

Overall, we found no consistent effects of cigarette advertising or display on peer approval for smoking, the experimental study article of positive attributes being ascribed to smokers, or overall harm from smoking. Several of the perceived harm variables and all the smoker attribute variables were highly skewed in a desirable direction, suggesting established views about smoking which may not be easy to manipulate by experimental study article single experimental exposure.

Results from this study support some of the findings of the experimental study of Henriksen et al. Like Henriksen et al. However, unlike Henriksen et al. We also did not find advertising to induce more positive appraisals of smokers, experimental study article. There were differences between our study and that of Henriksen et al. These include the fact that students are no longer routinely exposed to retail tobacco advertising in Australia, that Australian students were in Grade 9 aged 14—15 years only, rather than Grades 8 and 9 aged 13—15 yearsthat Australian students were recruited by active, rather than passive consent, experimental study article, and that Australian students were exposed to only one photograph in each condition, rather than two.

However, experimental study article, given these methodological and contextual differences, experimental study article, the fact that we did find experimental effects for most variables used in both studies suggests experimental study article the effects are relatively robust. There were several study limitations, not the least of which was that the stimulus conditions were artificial.

Students briefly viewed one of experimental study article three manipulated point-of-sale photographs in a classroom setting, rather than visiting a real store environment, experimental study article, so they may have perceived the photographs to be unrealistic, and may not have responded in the same way to a real life situation. However, the fact we did observe effects of the different point-of-sale photographs on students' perceptions about smoking even with a brief exposure suggests that the influence of cigarette advertising as well as pack displays in the actual store environment is probably considerable.

This also suggests that cigarette displays maybe extremely salient to smoking teenagers and can potentially influence their recollections of this type of marketing. We confirmed the finding of Henriksen et al. Future research might aim to study students' brand recall and perceptions about smoking immediately after exiting real stores that vary in dominance of cigarette displays at the point-of-sale.

A strength of the study was that we were able to randomize students to conditions within classrooms, rather than randomizing whole classrooms, as experimental study article the study of Henriksen et al. However, since data collection occurred within classrooms and only five schools were involved, there may still be clustering of respondents, so to be conservative, we analysed the data using GEEs with random effects, where the school attended by respondents was treated as a random effect.

We also controlled for sex, smoking susceptibility and social and familial exposures to cigarette smoking. Thus, the effects observed in this study are independent of these other well-known influences on smoking perceptions. This study suggests that the presence of cigarette displays at the point-of-sale, even in the absence of cigarette advertising, has adverse effects on students' perceptions about ease of access to cigarettes and brand recall, experimental study article, both factors that increase the experimental study article of taking up smoking [ 14, 15 ].

Furthermore, the study suggests that cigarette advertising has similar effects, and may also weaken students' firm intentions not to smoke in future, a measure that also strongly predicts smoking uptake [ 16 ]. These findings make a case for eliminating cigarette advertising at the experimental study article, and also for placing cigarettes out of sight in the retail environment, as has happened in Saskatechewan, Canada [ 17 ].

Such a move may help to curb the alarming rate of smoking uptake among adolescents. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

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An experimental study of a Mediterranean diet intervention for patients with rheumatoid arthritis


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In an experimental study, Pool, Koolstra, and van der Voort () found that high school students who did academic work while soap operas were shown on television took longer to carry out the task than those with no distractions, largely because they would look up from their work to watch the program. Although students spent equivalent amounts Cited by: Read and learn for free about the following article: Observational studies and experiments Worked example identifying observational study. Observational studies and experiments. This is the currently selected item. (experimental vs. observational) Types of statistical studies. Mar 11,  · Experimental Alzheimer's Drug Shows Promise. MONDAY, March 11 (HealthDay News) -- A small Finnish study is raising hopes for a new drug designed to help stave off memory loss among patients Author: Healthday.